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These functions transform a vector into a single string similar to knitr::combine_words() or glue::glue_collapse().

and() and or() natively support localization, using translations and punctuation to match the users' language settings. See and_languages for available languages.

  • and() combines words using the native conjunctive ("and" in English)

  • or() combines words using the native disjunctive ("or" in English)


and(x, ..., language = NULL)

or(x, ..., language = NULL)


Language data is derived from the Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)



A list of character strings to combine


These dots are for future extensions and must be empty.


The language to use for translation. If NULL, the default, the language of the user's R session is used.

Codes should should be two or three lowercase letters representing the language, optionally followed by an underscore and two uppercase letters representing a territory. For example, "es" represents Spanish and "en_US" represents American English.

If a territory is specified but there is no specific translation for that territory, translations fall back to the general language. For example, and does not include specific translations for Canadian French, so "fr_CA" falls back to "fr".

If a language is specified that is not supported by and, translations fall back to English. For a list of supported languages, see and_languages.


A character string of length 1


#> [1] "1, 2 and 3"
#> [1] "1, 2 or 3"

and(1:3, language = "es")
#> [1] "1, 2 y 3"
or(1:3, language = "ja")
#> [1] "1、2、または3"